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UNESCO-UNEVOC has compiled a short selection of academic or professional articles that might help to clarify the signification and the use of the term "Entrepreneurship education". It goes thus beyond the definitions stored in TVETipedia while not pretending to offer an exhaustive bibliography on the topic.
Towards an entrepreneurial culture for the twenty-first century By Carmela Salzano, UNESCO/ILO
This frequently cited report offers a strong case for entrepreneurship education (and “Enterprise education”) for growth and sustainable development. The first part describes the role of entrepreneurship in societies, starting with a definition of "Entrepreneurship" and a categorization for "Entrepreneurs", which both figure in the selected quotes.
Different types of relationship between entrepreneurship and the world of work:
From writers and photographers, to carpenters and interior design consultants, many people run their careers by going freelance. Working at home or lugging a laptop to their favourite thinking spot, freelancers promote their services to whoever has work to be done. …
Contract workers benefit from the diversity of opportunities created by employers who farm out their jobs on a project-by-project basis. They pick and choose the projects they prefer, learn to live with risk and balance out their work to get them through the lean times. …
Millions of people around the world choose to start their own business every year, working long hours to turn their ideas into business plans and to build something out of nothing – creating jobs for themselves and for others. …
Intrapreneurs, or enterprising employees, bring their ideas to fruition by using existing resources, networks and business structures, creating entrepreneurial opportunities within an established organization. Within the bounds of their jobs, they come up with projects that fulfill their goals and bolster their company’s bottom line at the same time. …
Those who want to make the world a better place − on their terms − often choose social entrepreneurship, championing causes ranging from community development to international aid, creating and running programmes that serve society’s social, but often non revenue-generating needs.…UNESCO/ILO, pp5;9
"Who do EET programs target? (b) What outcomes do EET programs aim to achieve? (c) What dimensions shape these outcomes? and(d) At what cost are outcomes achieved?".
To answer those questions the World Bank relies on a simple but rather exhaustive framework for entrepreneurship education programmes, transcripted in the selected quotes.
Determining the outcomes of EET programs is a complex and multidimensional challenge, regardless of whom a program targets. The task is complicated in part because the intended outcomes of EET programs can vary substantially from program to program. Therefore, this study draws upon existing EET research to propose a way of conceptualizing both the results EET programs seek and the factors that can shape those outcomes.
Outcomes for EET programs can be categorized into four domains. The first, entrepreneurial mind-sets, refers to the socio-emotional skills and overall awareness of entrepreneurship associated with entrepreneurial motivation and future success as an entrepreneur (such as self-confidence, leadership, creativity, risk propensity, motivation, resilience, and self-efficacy). The second, entrepreneurial capabilities, refers to entrepreneurs’ competencies, knowledge, and technical skills associated with their entrepreneurship (such as management skills, accounting, marketing, and technical knowledge). The third, entrepreneurial status, refers to the temporal state of a program beneficiary as measured through entrepreneurial activities and beyond (such as by starting a business, becoming employed, or achieving a higher income). Lastly, the fourth domain, entrepreneurial performance, refers explicitly to how indicators of a venture’s performance have changed as a result of an intervention (such as by gaining higher profits, increased sales, greater employment of others, or higher survival rates).The Conceptual Framework also outlines three dimensions that available research has shown to influence the range of EET outcomes (see figure 2.2): (i) the context within which programs are implemented; (ii) the characteristics of individual participants; and (iii) the functional characteristics of the programs themselves." …World Bank, pp2-4
Deriving from the previous reference, this report focuses on Entrepreneurship education in Ghana, Kenya and Mozambique. Based on those national cases, the authors go deeper into the challenges and limits of entrepreneurship education programmes. In the selected quotes, the lack of scientific data on "EET" is well shown alongside with the difficulties to adapt programmes to diverse audience targets.
Specific EET programs have demonstrated great promise. However, much more fine-grained analysis needs to be done, particularly with regard to the validity of EET as an antipoverty intervention as well as its direct connection to improving business performance in terms of enhanced profits and prospects for firm growth. …
With such diverse target audiences, these EET programs naturally vary in their emphasis. In all three countries, programs targeting vulnerable potential entrepreneurs often have poverty reduction as their goal rather than skill acquisition per se. Those focused on youth often make job acquisition a priority. Secondary school EET programs, by contrast, are more likely to devote energy to developing a broad understanding of business principles. EET programs are insufficiently tailored to their participants’ backgrounds and needs, and they suffer from lack of coordination and information sharing. Despite the program diversity just described, too many EET programs fail to tailor their curriculum and methods to their audience and its needs."World Bank pp2-4
The Oslo Agenda was written almost ten years ago but still provides many relevant “proposals” for stakeholders of every level in order to “step up progress in promoting entrepreneurial mindsets”.
This article is an element of the TVETipedia Glossary.