Essential or foundation skills
Parent term: Skills
Terms used by some countries which are often synonymous with literacy, numeracy and basic skills/basic education.
Source: EU Commission AL 2010, Europe
|Organisation: || European Union, Europe|
|Source: || European Adult Learning Glossary (2010)|
|Description: ||This glossary is one output of European Commission project EAC/11/2008, 'Study on European Terminology in Adult Learning for a common language and common understanding and monitoring of the sector'. Work on this study was led by the National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy (NRDC), Institute of Education, London in collaboration with colleagues from the Deutsches Institut für Erwachsenenbildung (DIE), the Agence Nationale de Lutte contre l'illetrisme (ANLCI) and the University of Warsaw. Terms listed [...] are presented under six conceptual headings [...]. A seventh grouping representing general theories and concept in adult learning has also been including. The seven groups are: Theories and concepts in adult learning, Adult learning strategy, policy and legislation, adult skills and competences, access to and participation in adult learning, investment in adult learning, quality of adult learning, outcomes and of adult learning. p.2 (About)|
Foundation skills: Reading, writing, numeracy, oral communication along with employability and learning skills.
Source: NCVER 2013, Australia
|Organisation: || National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), Australia|
|Source: || Glossary of VET (2013 - online version continuously updated, Accessed in Jan. 2016)|
|Description: ||The language of vocational education and training (VET) is complex and particularly prone to jargon and acronyms. The aim of this glossary is to provide a single up-to-date reference source for definitions of Australian VET-related terms, acronyms and organisations.|
The glossary is based on 'A glossary of Australian vocational education and training terms' which was published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2000. New content, sourced from recent NCVER publications, the VOCED database, websites of key Australian VET organisations, other VET glossaries and suggestions from NCVER staff, has been added. Website
Foundation skills include the basic academic knowledge and skills that learners acquire often as result of their participation in formal school education (primary and secondary schools) or sometimes through non-formal and informal learning opportunities. These skills, which include basic literacy and numeracy skills, provide the foundation upon which learners receive further education to deepen their capacity for fulfilling, meaningful lives and decent jobs.
Source: UNESCO (Bangkok) 2014, Asia Pacific
|Organisation: || UNESCO Bangkok (Asia-Pacific regional bureau for education), UN|
|Source: || Education Policy Brief (Vol.2): Skills for holistic human development (November 2014)|
|Description: ||"[The brief] elaborates on three broad categories of skills – foundation, specialized and transversal skills – which are considered important for the development of well-rounded learners. To strengthen the development of these skills through education and training, the brief considers a number of policy actions, including scaling up of advocacy and awareness raising, stronger alignment between policies, curricula, pedagogies and assessment as well as support for teachers. Intended for education policy makers, including Ministers of Education and senior sector managers, the brief aims to foster debate on adequate policy interventions to support skills for holistic human development."B.Tzrmiel (e-forum)|
Essential Skills are the skills people need for work, learning and life. They are the foundation for learning all other skills and the cornerstone of lifelong learning. Essential skills are used in virtually all occupations and throughout daily life in different forms and at different levels of complexity. The Essential Skills identified by Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) are:
Reading text, Numeracy, Oral communication, Thinking skills, Continuous learning, Document use, Writing, Working with others, Computer use.
Source: ACCC 2007, Canada
At their most elemental, foundation skills include the literacy and numeracy skills necessary for getting work that can pay enough to meet daily needs. These skills are also a prerequisite for continuing in education and training, and for acquiring transferable and technical and vocationa skills that enhance the prospect of getting a job.
Source: EFA (GMR) 2012, Global
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